Sertai Geng Travel


Thursday, December 23, 2010


During Paediatric Optometry Clinic session, we must do observation on child coarse, social, fine, adaptive & language development as well, not only focus on vision and eye development.

Vsion and eye development.

For 2 years old children, their VA can achieve 6/12-6/9.

Keratometry value is 44 D, lens power is 23 D and axial length is 21.4mm. 

Social Development

  • Depending on his or her exposure to other children, may start to have favorite playmates and warm bonds with others (e.g., Adam asks about Haziq when he is absent from the child care program for a few days).
  • Shows awareness of others' feelings. May try to give basic help (e.g., watches the teacher to see if she will come to the aid of a child who is crying; pats or hugs the child who is sad).
  • Looks to adults for comfort when conflict happens (e.g., when a child takes all the crayons at child care, Lauren runs to teacher and hugs her around the knees).
  • Enjoys playing alongside other children, but doesn't interact a great deal with them.

  • Extends trusting relationships to other adults and to children with whom he or she plays frequently; shows preferences for these adults and children (e.g., hugs favorite teacher when he or she arrives at preschool, goes to favorite teacher for comfort after a fall on the playground).

  • Shows strong sense of self as an individual (e.g., says, "No!" or cry to an adult's request, simply to assert
  • Recognizes feelings when emotions are labeled by adult (e.g., teacher says, "I know you feel scared about that," and the child calms a bit). Increases his or her understanding and use of language related to emotions (e.g., says, "Mommy's happy now."). Expands his or her understanding of what others' feelings mean (e.g., looks at father's expression).

  • Continues to find the regulation of emotions difficult. As a result, frustration may still trigger tantrums. Uses a wider range of coping strategies (e.g., comfort objects, words that label feelings). Continues to need a great deal of adult support.


  • Creates nonrepresentational art (e.g., makes random marks and scribbles on paper using crayons, markers, pencil or chalk).
  • Uses art media to manage feelings (e.g., enjoys making holes in clay when frustrated, scribbles on paper and part of the table top when excited).

  • Uses a variety of art tools to draw, paint, sculpt and make collages, concentrating on the process rather than the product (e.g., scribble paints on butcher paper).
  • Shows a preference for "favorite" colors and styles of art (e.g., child chooses orange markers or paint at nearly every artistic opportunity).


  • Participates in finger plays and body plays (e.g., tries to act out hand motions to "Itsy Bitsy Spider").

  • Uses gestures and hand movements to convey meaning (e.g., slaps hands against knees during a finger play to represent feet marching).


  • Responds with body movements to changes in music's tempo, loudness, and style (e.g., starts flapping arms and stomping feet as music increases in loudness and pace).
  • Enjoys singing aloud (e.g., hums simple tunes, initiates singing with an adult).

  • Echoes the feelings of others expressed in voice and song (e.g., imitates the vocal characteristics of adults in conversations and singing).

  • Seeks out favorite movies & songs (e.g., requests to hear favorite music over and over again).
  • Understands that shaking, banging and plucking instruments causes them to make various musical sounds (e.g., bangs on piano keys repeatedly to make musical sounds).

    Health Status and Practices

  • Is able to help dress and undress self. Puts on simple
  • Uses tissue to wipe nose with help.
  • Is typically mature enough to toilet train.
  • Improves ability to calm oneself.
  • Washes and dries hands without help.
  • Pays attention to safety instructions. May not always obey.

Motor Skill Development

  • Rolls, crawls, creeps, walks, jumps, runs, and climbs. Can crawl through tunnels, go over and under low obstacles, and move swiftly up and down ramps. Climbs low steps, pushes boxes and pulls toys.
  • Loves to move on hands and knees pretending to be animals (e.g., barking like a dog, pouncing like a cat on a mouse).
  • Falls frequently when running. Begins to understand leading with one foot in order to gallop.
  • When climbing, may get stuck and need help getting down.
  • Can get into a chair independently.
  • While holding a hand rail, walks up and down stairs with one foot on each step. Can jump off of one step, but may lose balance when landing.
  • Needs opportunities for active, large-muscle play both indoors and out.
  • May want to hold hands with an adult when walking on a low beam or stepping over the rungs of a ladder. Likes to climb and balance on higher objects like tabletops and chairs, which may not always be safe.
  • Bends over easily without falling.
  • Picks up toys from a standing position.
  • Stands on one foot with assistance. Stands and walks on tiptoes.

  • Rides a tricycle using pedals some of the time.
  • Kicks a small ball forward.
  • Likes to toss or drop a ball or beanbag into a bin. Can throw a ball overhand, but with little accuracy; flings a ball in any direction.
  • Catches a rolled ball by trapping it with arms and hands and body. Attempts to catch a thrown ball by extending arms directly in front of body; may or may not be able to catch the ball.
  • Explores various ways to move body (e.g., climbing, dancing, rolling). Typically knows a number of body parts.
  • Loves finger play activities (e.g., "The Itsy, Bitsy, Spider"), including those where children identify and touch different parts of the body (e.g., "Head, Shoulders, Knees, and Toes").
  • Enjoys shaking and manipulating rhythm instruments.
  • Increasingly participates in dressing and undressing (e.g., removes pants with elastic waistband, takes off shoes).
  • Scribbles with marker or crayon. Can make vertical, horizontal, and circular strokes with pen or crayon.

    Easily can hold his feeding bottle and hold off it after finished.
  • Threads big beads.
  • Refines use of eating utensils.
  • Can turn rotating handles (e.g., doorknobs) and screw and unscrew lids.
  • Turns pages one by one.
  • Rolls, pounds, squeezes and pulls clay.

    Okay, happy tracking your child and assessing your 2 years old patients

Chief Excutive Officer

dR_916 Sdn. Bhd. - Take 5 for Travel Tips

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